For a common man, textiles means a fabric which he buys to wear but he does not know that made-ups, various garments and different type of yarns are also considered under the word “Textiles” means any material mafrom the yarn either by weaving or knitting process. Basically the process of converting fibre into fabric consists of four stages.
Production of fibre (raw material for yarn).
Conversion of fibre into yarn (raw material for gray fabric).
Conversion of yarn into gray fabric (raw material for finished cloth).
Conversion of gray fabric into finished fabric. (raw material for garment).
Fibres : Many kinds of textile fibres have been used to make different types of fabrics. The present textile fibres can be classified according to their origin on the basis of length and diameter.
Yarn: Yarn is manufactured by spinning process during which the fibres are converted into continuous length of thread. During spinning process, the twists are also inserted to hold the fibre together. To manufacture blended yarn, continuous filaments are cut into fixed length and mixed with natural or any staple fibre as the requirement and requisite blend ratio. Continuous filament yarn having one or more filament are known as mono or multi filament respectively.
Yarn manufacturing process for spun yarn:
Blowing/Opening/Beating - The bales of raw fibre are opened, blended, separated and cleaned then formed into laps (rolls).
Carding (and Combing) - The laps of fibre are formed into fleece and then card slivers (rope, like strands). For higher-grade and finer yarns, the combing process is continued.
Drawing - Several slivers are combined and drawn out into a longer, thinner strand, i.e. sliver.
Roving (for ring spinning) - This process is to draw out the sliver into an even finer strand (roving) and twist it slightly.
Spinning - The roving is drawn out (draft) into yarn with twist for strength and wound onto bobbins or tubes.
Twisting/Winding - For plying two or more yarns together, and rewinding the yarn bobbins onto cheeses or cones.
Yarn manufacturing process for filament yarn: The filament yarn mean synthetic continuous filament yarn suitable for clothing purpose, like polyester, nylon, acrylics, etc. generally man made fibre in its liquid or molten state is forced through the holes of a spinneret and emerges as a long, smooth, rod-like filament.
Yarn numbering system: Yam numbering is a numerical expression, which defines its fineness.
Direct system: In a direct yarn counting system the yarn number or count is the weight of a unit length of yarn.
Indirect system: In an indirect system the yarn number of count is the number of ‘unit of length’ per ‘unit of weight’.
Conversion system for direct to direct or indirect and indirect to direct or indirect:
Description of steam: Steam is a process to temporary remove torque of twist on yarn for proper weaving. In process house after recreation of torque we can create georgette feeling on finished fabric. If we can’t remove torque properly it will create problems during weaving and if we give high temperature it removal of torque will be permanent and it will not remove during processing and we can’t get proper georgette feeling.
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Our Textile Lab do below Fibre to Fabric Textile Testing with the help of Textiles Equipment :
General problems created in yarn
Problems created in fabrics
TO SAVE ELECTRIC ENERGY
TO SAVE THERMAL ENERGY
Quality, Warp, Weft, Total Ends, Reed Space, Reed x Pick, Weight -Warp, Weft, Cloth
Note : The particulars given here are for guideline only. It may vary from “time to time” and “place to place”.
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