Free Textile Knowledge, Garment Testing Method’s Video, Fabric Testing Machine Video, Operating System Training, Download pdf, Yarn testing method, Yarn Testing Video

 WHAT IS TEXTILE?

For a common man, textiles means a fabric which he buys to wear but he does not know that made-ups, various garments and different type of yarns are also considered under the word “Textiles” means any material mafrom the yarn either by weaving or knitting process. Basically the process of converting fibre into fabric consists of four stages.   

Production of      fibre (raw material for yarn). 

Conversion of      fibre into yarn (raw material for gray fabric).

Conversion of      yarn into gray fabric (raw material for finished cloth).

Conversion of      gray fabric into finished fabric. (raw material for garment).


Fibres : Many kinds of textile fibres have been used to make different types of fabrics. The present textile fibres can be classified according to their origin on the basis of length and diameter.    


see table


 Yarn:  Yarn is manufactured by spinning process during which the fibres are converted into continuous length of thread. During spinning process, the twists are also inserted to hold the fibre together. To manufacture blended yarn, continuous filaments are cut into fixed length and mixed with natural or any staple fibre as the requirement and requisite blend ratio. Continuous filament yarn having one or more filament are known as mono or multi filament respectively.  


see table


  Yarn manufacturing process for spun yarn:     

Blowing/Opening/Beating -   The bales of raw fibre are opened, blended, separated and cleaned then formed   into laps (rolls). 

Carding (and Combing) -   The laps of fibre are formed into fleece and then card slivers (rope, like   strands). For higher-grade and finer yarns, the combing process is continued. 

Drawing   - Several slivers are combined and drawn   out into a longer, thinner strand, i.e. sliver.   

Roving (for ring spinning)     - This process is to draw out the sliver   into an even finer strand (roving) and twist it slightly.  

Spinning     -   The roving is drawn out (draft) into yarn with twist for strength and wound   onto bobbins or tubes.    

Twisting/Winding     -   For plying two or more yarns together, and rewinding the yarn bobbins onto   cheeses or cones.     



  Yarn manufacturing process for filament yarn: The filament yarn mean synthetic continuous filament yarn suitable for clothing purpose, like polyester, nylon, acrylics, etc. generally man made fibre in its liquid or molten state is forced through the holes of a spinneret and emerges as a long, smooth, rod-like filament.          


Yarn numbering system: ­Yam numbering is a numerical expression, which defines its fineness.   


Direct system: In a direct yarn counting system the yarn number or count is the weight of a unit length of yarn.   

 

see table 


  Indirect system: In an indirect system the yarn number of count is the number of ‘unit of length’ per ‘unit of weight’.  


see table


  Conversion system for direct to direct or indirect and indirect to direct or indirect:     


see table


Description of steam: Steam is a process to temporary remove torque of twist on yarn for proper weaving. In process house after recreation of torque we can create georgette feeling on finished fabric. If we can’t remove torque properly it will create problems during weaving and if we give high temperature it removal of torque will be permanent and it will not remove during processing and we can’t get proper georgette feeling.


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B-Tex Laboratory provides services to test the following:

Our Textile Lab do below Fibre to Fabric Textile Testing with the help of Textiles Equipment :


  • Yarns: Denier/Count, No. Of Filaments, Types of Yarn, Twist Per Meter, Breaking Strength, Elongation at Break, Tenacity, Oil Content, Boiling Water Shrinkage, Identification of Fibre, Hot Crimp Contraction, Lea Strength, Hardness, Crimp rigidity, Yarn Dyeing Analysis, Moisture Regain, Moisture Content, Yarn Thickness, Identification Of yarn component, Nips per Meter. 


  • Fabrics and garments: Weaving Techniques, Breaking Strength per Yarn, Elongation at Break, (dry or wet) per yarn, Fabric Breaking Strength (warp/weft), Fabric Elongation at Break, E.P.I.(Ends Per Inch), P.P.I.(Pick Per Inch), Material Thickness, G.S.M. Weight, Defective Fabric Analysis, Constructionally Fabric Analysis, Border Test (1.Single Yarn 2.Multi Yarn), Elastic Recovery, Construction of Sewing Thread, Fabric Width, Fabric Dyeing Analysis, % of loss in Boiling water /Scouring loss, Shrinkage of warp/weft(Hot/Cold).


  • Dyes, Auxiliaries and chemicals: Solubility, Identification of Dye, Strength of Dye, Viscosity of Printing paste and thickeners, Insoluble Matter, Silica Content etc., Alkalinity, Acidity, Total Hardness, Total Dissolved Solid, Chlorides, Sulphates and Iron content in water sample, Ash content, Purity, Active Content, Solid Content, Boiling Point, Melting Point, Specific Gravity, Density, Ionic Nature, Cloud Point etc. for different chemicals.


  • Coal, Oil and Thermic Fluid: Analysis of above is undertaken to help industry to reduce it’s energy cost and Pollution Control. Fuels are analyzed for Moisture Content, Calorific Value, Ash Content, Flash and Fire Point, Carbon Residue.


  • Water and Effluent Water (Complete Water Analysis): Temperature, pH, Colour, Total Organic Carbon, Suspended Solid, Total Solid, Dissolved Solid, Oil and Grease Compound, B.O.D., C.O.D., Chlorides, Sulphites, Cynides, Heavy Metal.


   General problems created in yarn         

  • Denier variation   - Drawing variation (tension,   speed)   
  • Temperature variation    - Break the use of A/C plant - Improper maintenance   
  • Crimp variation   - Speed used more than M/C capacity      
  • Boiling water shrinkage   - Break the use of A/C plant,   which make temp &   humidity Variation. - Improper maintenance     
  • Intermingling variation   - Improper  work of nozzle    
  • Oil variation   - Oil device speed variation or   oil property variation       

Problems created in fabrics 


  • Denier variation   - Yarn property variation  - Lot mix. of different merge. 
  • Twist variation   - Twisting or   T.F.O. spindles speed variation. - Due to belt sleep. 
  •  Filament variation   - Different yarn mix.   
  • Reed / Pick variation   - Reed is not proper or not fitted proper on M/C  - Eccentricity variation on slay / Bush-Damage. - Let – off & take- up variation.    
  • Temperature variation   - Yarn property variation - Steam variation during steaming    - Processed over heating or big   lot in single job.    


  • Other problems created in gray fabric are weft cracks, starting marks, thick places, missing ends, float, broken patterns, broken pick, double pick, lacing – in, gout – woven particles, hole or torn, reedy cloth, snarls, oil stains, shuttle supported, warp and weft bars, rupture / filamentation of yarn in the fabric, emery marks, temples marks, uneven selvedge, untrimmed loose ends.   


Energy Audits


  1. Texturisers ------ Electric Energy.
  2. Weavers ------ Electric Energy.
  3. Processors ------Electric and Thermal Energy.  


 TO SAVE ELECTRIC ENERGY 


  • Stabilized energy (stabilizer/inverter) 
  • Use motor capacity as per your m/c requirement. 
  • Cut off the extra load and save over quotation of electricity bill and save minimum bill expenses of electricity. 
  • Use capacitor / inverter. 
  • If there is no inverter connected check the load of equipment twice a year. 
  • Take the maintenance of motor once a year in your unit. 
  • Use standard application to machines. 
  • Use of properly balanced pulley and standard bearings. 
  • Use low weighted and high strength pulley. 
  • Use proper tension belts as required. 
  • Use exhaust fans attached with timer or use them as per requirement. 
  • Use limited lights to save power. Also use reflectors and clean them regularly. 
  • Use plastic transparent roofs as per requirement. 
  • Use more ventilation if possible in particular area. 
  • Do not use heavy capacity m/c (extra width) to produce normal width fabric.  


TO SAVE THERMAL ENERGY

  • Do not use heavy capacity boiler instead of your requirement. 
  • Checks regularly steam line and cover pipes with perfect insulation avoid temperature loss. 
  • Make proper valve maintenance for steam line. 
  • Avoid leakages. 
  • Re-use hot water. 
  • Taste water for hardness. 
  • Automation of streamlines to machinery will help to avoid accidents. 
  • Test regularly coal, lignite for calorific value to avoid loss. 
  • Use proper ground level to avoid extra labor and maintenance

Quality particulars of some popular fabric varieties

Quality, Warp, Weft, Total Ends, Reed Space, Reed x Pick, Weight -Warp, Weft, Cloth     


  • Poonam -  62/36/1770-‘S’ Semi dull crimp poly,  62/36/1880-‘Z’ Semi dull crimp poly, (2x2), Same as Warp, 3840, 51.1”, 72 x 2 x 68, 3100, 2500, 5600.     


  • Dani Chiffon - 20/6/1400, Full dull Nylon ‘S’ & ‘Z’, Same as Warp, 4080, 40”, 96 x 2 x 80, 1.050 0.750 1.800      


  • 100 X 100 Georgette - 100/44/1770 Viscose ‘S’ & ‘Z’, Same as Warp, 3276, 50”, 64 x 2 x 60, 4.300, 3.600, 7.900»7.800     


  • Marble Chiffon, 50/48/2800-‘S’Semi dull flat poly, 50/48/3025-‘Z’Semi dull flat poly, 4600, 58”, 76 x 2 x 76, 3.100, 3.000, 6.100»6.200     


  • ChinaYoryu Saree - 50/36 Bright flat Poly. Sized, 50/36/2800 Semi dull flat Poly., 6000, 59”, 100 x 2 x 80, 3.900, 2.900, 6.800     


  • Dechine Dress - 50/36 Bright flat Poly. Sized, 75/36/2150 Semi dull crimp Poly., 6000, 49”, 80 x 3 x 80, 3.900, 3.600, 7.500     


  • Fuji Chiffon - 30/12/1000 Bright flat Poly., 50/36/2800 Semi dull flat Poly., 6100, 58”, 100 x 2 x 84, 2.200, 3.000, 5.200     


  • Silver Matt - 84/34/400 Semi dull crimp Poly., 84/34/’0’ twist Semi dull crimp Poly., 4080, 50”, 80 x 2 x 80, 4.200, 3.700, 7.900     


  • Bolting Cloth - 30/1 Semi dull mono Poly., Same as Warp, 7360, 51.25”, 280 x 1 x 140, 2.700, 2.400, 5.100     


  • Metal Chiffon - 30/12/1000 Bright flat Poly., 50/54/2800 Catonic Poly., 6080, 58”, 100 x 2 x 88, 2.300, 3.200, 5.500     


  • NaraChiffon - 30/12/1000 Bright flat Poly., 30/12/3400 Bright flat Poly., 6736, 61.75”, 104 x 2 x 92, 2.600, 2.000, 4.600    


  • Pure Silk Chiffon - 20/22 Pure Silk Twist 1800 ‘S’, ‘Z’ 20/22 Pure Silk Twist 3600 (One Side), 7620, 61”, 120 x 2 x 100, 2.000, 1.500, 3.500     


  • Organzine - 2/20/22 Pure Silk Twist 400, 2/20/22 Pure Silk Twist 400, 5100, 48”, 104 x 2 x 112, 2.700, 2.500, 5.200     


  • Kosa Silk - 50/36 Bright flat Poly. Sized, 50/36 Bright flat I.M. or 450-T, 5400, 50.75”, 104 x 2 x 80, 3.500, 2.300, 5.800     


  • Kora Silk - 50/36/1800  ‘S’ & ‘Z’ Semi dull crimp Poly., 50/36 Bright flat  450-T, 4920, 50”, 96 x 2 x 80, 3.200, 2.300, 5.500     


  • Masoor Silk - 50/36 Bright flat Poly. Sized, 50/36/1200  ‘S’ & ‘Z’ Semi dull crimp Poly., 6000, 49.5”, 80 x 3 x 72, 3.900, 2.000, 5.900»5.800     


  • Ultra Satin - 50/36 Bright flat Poly. Sized , 50/36/’0’ Twist Semi dull crimp Poly., 9600, 50.20”, 76 x 5 x 84, 6.200, 2.300, 8.500     


  • Satin Velvet - 50/36 Bright flat Poly. Sized, 50/36/1000 Semi dull crimp Poly., 9600, 49.5”, 96 x 4 x 80, 6.200, 2.300, 8.500     


  • Moss / Licy Georgette - 70/68/2200 - ‘S’ & ‘Z’ Semi dull flat Poly., Same as Warp, 7560, 51.5”, 72 x 4 x 76, 6.900, 3.300, 10.200     


  • Chirmin - 50/36 Bright flat Poly. Sized, 50/36/1770 - ‘S’ Semi dull crimp poly & 1880 - ‘Z’ (2x2), 5400, 55”, 96 x 2 x 76, 3.500, 2.500, 6.000     


  • Poonam Brasso - 50/36/1770 - ‘S’ & 1880 - ‘Z’ Semi dull crimp poly. (2x2) & 120 Denier Viscose Sized, Same as Warp, 4320 & 3960, 51”, 80 x 4 x 76, 2.800 & 5.700 = 8.500, 2.300, 10.800  


  • C. x C. Poonam - 50/24/1600 – ‘S’ & 1400 – ‘Z’ Catonic Crimp Poly., Same as Warp, 4320, 51”, 80 x 2 x 72, 3.200, 2.400, 5.600     


  • 84 x 84 - 84/48/1250 – ‘S’ & 1000 – ‘Z’ Semi dull crimp Poly., Same as Warp, 3880, 52”, 72 x 2x 76, 4.200, 3.300, 7.500     


  • 70 x 68 - 70/68/2000 - ‘S’ & ‘Z’ Semi dull flat Poly., Same as Warp, 3640, 54”, 64 x 2 x 64, 3.400, 2.800, 6.200     


  • Leon Georgette - 80/72/1200 – ‘S’ 80/72/1800 – ‘Z’ Roto Poly., Same as Warp, 4560, 54”, 80 x 2 x 72, 4.800, 3.700, 8.500     


  • 75 x 108 - 75/108/2000 - ‘S’ & ‘Z’ Semi dull flat Poly., Same as Warp, 4400, 53”, 80 x 2 x 72, 4.400, 3.400, 7.800     


  • Sumo Satin - 50/36/600 – ‘S’ Bright Flat Poly. / Sized, 50/24/1000 – ‘S’ Catonic Crimp Poly., 8800, 51”, 68 x 5 x 80, 5.700, 2.500, 8.200     


  • Summer Cool - 62/36/2200 – ‘S’ & ‘Z’Semi dull crimp Poly., Same as Warp, 7200, 53”, 88 x 3 x 72, 5.800, 2.700, 8.500     


  • Catonic Dupion - 50/24/800 – ‘S’ Catonic Crimp Poly., 160 Denier Dupion, 3520, 49”, 68 x 2 x 60, 2.500, 5.300, 7.800     


  • JapanCrape - 50/36/600 – ‘S’ Bright Flat Poly., 50/48 Crape ‘S’ & ‘Z’, 12000, 52”, 92 x 5 x 92, 7.500, 3.000, 10.500     


  • Italian Crape - 60/100 Semi dull flat Poly. Sized, 50/48 Crape ‘S’ & ‘Z’ 6000, 55”, 104 x 2 x 80, 4.700, 2.700, 7.400     


  • Pearl Silk - 50/36 – N.S.Y. Poly., 62/36/1400 – ‘S’ & 1560 – ‘Z’ Semi dull crimp Poly., 6000, 49”, 80 x 3 x 72, 3.500, 2.500, 6.000       


Note : The particulars given here are for guideline only. It may vary from “time to time” and “place to place”.        

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Online store of Textile, Yarn, Fabric, Garment, Paper, Plastic, Rubber testing like tensile, bursting, tearing, strength, tension, twist, denier, count, dyeing, matching, fastness, abrasion, rubbing, tearing, Laboratory Testing Equipments, Instruments From Manufacturing Company.

Textile Testing Equipment Manufacturing Company

B-TEX Engineering, 38/4, Sandesh News Paper Lane, Bh. Sub Jail, Khatodara, Surat-395002, Gujarat-India

+91-98981-06399

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Sunday: Closed